Frases y Pensamientos
25 marzo, 2017
Cuando el cáncer llega a tu vida
5 abril, 2017

Las cuatro nobles verdades

El nacimiento, la vejez, la enfermedad y la muerte

Las cuatro nobles verdades

Las cuatro nobles verdades

Toda existencia es insatisfactoria «Esta es, oh monjes, la noble verdad sobre el sufrimiento. El nacimiento es sufrimiento, la vejez es sufrimiento, la enfermedad es sufrimiento, la muerte es sufrimiento, convivir con lo indeseable es sufrimiento, separarse de lo deseable es sufrimiento, no obtener lo que se desea es sufrimiento. Todo conlleva sufrimiento, la existencia y sus partes son sufrimiento.»

Todo es sufrimiento, nada es felicidad completa, el sufrimiento está siempre presente. La muerte de uno mismo y de los seres queridos es sufrimiento, así como la enfermedad de nuestros seres amados y la propia es sufrimiento, incluso la convivencia con seres amados conlleva sufrimiento. Dukkha (sufrimiento en lengua pali) se refiere a un sentido más amplio de sufrimiento: dolor, tristeza, pena, imperfección, aflicción, impermanencia, insustancialidad…

El «diagnóstico»: La causa del sufrimiento

El sufrimiento proviene del deseo, apego y la ignorancia «Esta es, oh monjes, la noble verdad sobre el origen del sufrimiento es el deseo y los cinco venenos (Apego, Odio, Ignorancia, Ego, Celos), son los que producen nuevos renacimientos.»

El sufrimiento surge del deseo o como consecuencia lógica de acciones pasadas de elección propia. El motivo para realizar estas acciones, o sea, el origen y porqué del sufrimiento, son las pasiones humanas. Todo surge de no saber que todas esas acciones llevan al sufrimiento y al no conocimiento de la impermanencia e interdependencia de las cosas.

La posible cesación del sufrimiento

El sufrimiento puede ser vencido «Esta es, oh monjes, la noble verdad sobre la supresión del sufrimiento. Esta cesación es posible eliminando nuestro deseo, librándose del deseo-apego, abandonarlo para siempre, no dándole acogida en nosotros.»

Para terminar con nuestro sufrimiento hay que embarcarse en un estudio para hallar sus causas y comprobarlas por uno mismo, y después, eliminarlas. Hay que suprimir los cinco venenos y realizar acciones virtuosas, creando karma bueno. Esta noble verdad, en más profundidad, es el vacío, la sabiduría de la vacuidad, la realidad última, el corazón del Dharma.

El camino que lleva al cese del sufrimiento: El Noble camino óctuple[editar]
La prescripción (en pāḷi: Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Ariya Sacca):

Noble camino óctuple «Esta es, oh monjes, la noble verdad sobre el camino que conduce a la supresión del sufrimiento, hacia el Despertar, el nirvana, El camino de las ocho ramas, el sendero óctuple por ejemplo:

– Comprensión correcta
– Pensamiento correcto
– Palabra correcta
– Acción correcta
– Ocupación correcta
– Esfuerzo correcto
– Atención correcta
– Concentración correcta

Las cuatro nobles verdades contienen casi todas las enseñanzas del Buda y el budismo. Es por donde debería empezar cualquier principiante o persona interesada en el budismo y la meditación budista.


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